Alinari History of Italy
Università IULM Fratelli Alinari Università degli studi di Milano with the contribution of
Fondazione Cariplo

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  • Mountain climber photographer in front of the three peaks of Lavaredo, Auronzo di Cadore, Belluno

    Mountain climber photographer in front of the three peaks of Lavaredo, Auronzo di Cadore, Belluno

  • The Beacons, "I Faraglioni" on Capri

    The Beacons, "I Faraglioni" on Capri

  • Plowed field, countryside of Lombardy

    Plowed field, countryside of Lombardy

  • The last stages of the eruption of Vesuvius in 1906.

    The last stages of the eruption of Vesuvius in 1906.

  • A daytrip on a Vespa

    A daytrip on a Vespa

  • Aerial view of Olbia, in Sardinia

    Aerial view of Olbia, in Sardinia

  • External view of the Colosseum in Rome

    External view of the Colosseum in Rome

  • Nocturnal shot of Piazza del Popolo in Rome. In the foreground, view of one of the four basins that decorate the Flaminian Obelisk. In the background the churches of Santa Maria di Montesanto and Santa Maria dei Miracoli

    Nocturnal shot of Piazza del Popolo in Rome. In the foreground, view of one of the four basins that decorate the Flaminian Obelisk. In the background the churches of Santa Maria di Montesanto and...

  • The Castelletto quarter in Genoa. The gardens and the tram station are next to corso Carbonara. In the background a glimpse of the Castello Bruzzo, built by the architect Gino Coppedč

    The Castelletto quarter in Genoa. The gardens and the tram station are next to corso Carbonara. In the background a glimpse of the Castello Bruzzo, built by the architect Gino Coppedč

  • Tergal faą§ade of the Palace of the Rectorship in the Cittą Universitaria in Rome

    Tergal faą§ade of the Palace of the Rectorship in the Cittą Universitaria in Rome

  • View of Milan

    View of Milan

  • Inauguration of the Monument to Victor Emanuel II (Vittoriano o Altare della Patria)

    Inauguration of the Monument to Victor Emanuel II (Vittoriano o Altare della Patria)

  • Stadium, Flaminio, Rome

    Stadium, Flaminio, Rome

  • The Cascine Park, Florence

    The Cascine Park, Florence

  • View of Gran Sasso

    View of Gran Sasso

  • Country Idyll, painting attributed to Giorgione, in the Museo Civico, Padua

    Country Idyll, painting attributed to Giorgione, in the Museo Civico, Padua

  • Florence. Uffizi Gallery. Tourists admiring Botticelli's "La Primavera"

    Florence. Uffizi Gallery. Tourists admiring Botticelli's "La Primavera"

  • The beach of Iesolo crowded with bathers

    The beach of Iesolo crowded with bathers

  • The peaks of the southern Grigna emerge from a sea of fog, Lecco

    The peaks of the southern Grigna emerge from a sea of fog, Lecco

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Landscape and territory

In figurative art a landscape is a combination of the lines, shapes, light and colours of a natural setting captured at a certain moment; in literature the landscape is seen as a reflection and evocation of individual moods and memories; urban planning identifies different types of landscapes created by a complexity of phenomena, not necessarily natural, homogenous from a functional perspective (i.e. urban, rural, industrial landscape), or rather the manifestation of certain extreme situations found in human settlements (suburbs, dormitory neighbourhoods, etc.). In this sense the acceptation of landscape coincides with that typical of the sociological and economic context in that it represents the result and depiction of a precise context and a defined historical process. The characterization of a geographic landscape is determined, as well as by its physical elements, by their correlation in time and in space and by the interaction between physical-biological factors and human activities seen as an integral part of the process of the historical construction of the landscape, which can itself be defined, as Aldo Sestini wrote, as the complex combination of objects and phenomena associated to one another by mutual functions, as well as to their position on the territory, so as to construct an organic unity. This definition further highlights the significance of the definition of landscape offered by geographers and based on the evaluation of a variety of elements in the territory (structure, history, climate, natural resources) and not limited only to the aesthetic aspect. Thanks to this approach it is possible to verify how the territories that have remained intact over a long period of time or have been redefined in a well-balanced manner with respect to their original appearance are in fact those that have an internal harmony (coherence between the various elements of vegetation and with the physical environment in an ecological perspective; wealth, variety and stability of the ecosystem), a harmony that also translates into a formal quality (order, coherence, absence of monotony) but is essentially an expression of life's evolution. The same can be said of all those territories in which the work of mankind is tangible, throughout or in part (rural, industrial, urban landscape). One needs only to consider the example of urbanized territories that are upgraded also aesthetically, when the result of human intervention (buildings, roads, materials, colours, spaces, structures) is the expression of a certain type of civilization that has reached maturity, of a culture that is rooted in the surrounding physical environment and anchored to the resources of that environment, suited for that climate, expression of a rich and balanced ecosystem, in one of the stages of its slow evolution.

Route

  • Natural landscape

    For geographers the landscape represents, within a backdrop of natural elements, the materialisation into the geographic space of historic processes, articulated according to... >>

  • Human intervention

    In Italy, with only a few exceptions, there are no more natural landscapes made up only of elements of nature, physical and biological, with the exclusion of human intervention.... >>

  • Transportation (and means of transport)

    As Stefano Maggi writes in his book "Storia dei trasporti in Italia" (History of Transportation in Italy), the past two centuries have seen profound changes in the transport... >>

  • Antiquity

    The term "antiquity" refers, in relation to the history of civilizations, to the complexity of phenomena that belong to past ages, not bound by direct continuity to life and... >>

  • The city

    As Carlo Cattaneo wrote, the city can be "considered as the ideal principle of Italian histories", because it is the urban dimension that is "the only principle... >>

  • Architecture from 1860 to today. The different types

    With the unification process and the advent of the production system on a capitalist and industrial base, the drive towards specialisation also invest the urban morphology, with... >>

  • Italian 20th century architecture

    Italian architecture of the beginning of the 20th century embraces the new avant-garde movements, in particular Art Nouveau, with Giuseppe Sommaruga, Ernesto Basile and Raimondo... >>

  • Landscape architecture

    In the modern construction of the urban setting, landscape architecture is that discipline that deals with the study, design (landscape design) and management of all outdoor... >>

  • Portrayals of landscapes

    A conference was held in 2004 significantly entitled "Integrated perspectives. Landscape between aesthetics, ethics and ecology", which tried to define the notion of landscape... >>

  • Landscape fruition

    In the first pages of the European Landscape Convention signed in 2000 in Florence it is acknowledged that the landscape has "an important function of general interest, at... >>


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